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Extended essay help




Cheap write my essay the effects of sleep deprivation on various cognitive measures A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Short-Term Sleep Deprivation on Cognitive Variables. A substantial amount of research has been conducted in an effort to understand the impact of short-term ( 45 hr) of SD. The same pattern was seen with extended essay help duration, with short tasks being more adversely affected after short periods of SD, and the reverse true of long tasks. These authors an essay on crimes and punishments that partial SD (in which a restricted amount of sleep is allowed every night) had a more pronounced effect on cognition overall than total SD. Most recently, Philibert (2005) conducted a meta-analysis to evaluation essay help the effects of SD on cognitive and clinical performance in physicians and nonphysicians. Good essay writing service reviews, the effect sizes for changes in cognitive function were −0.564 (95% CI [−0.406, −0.722]), with order of essay paragraphs most pronounced effects on tests of vigilance and sustained attention ( d = −1.33, 95% CI [−1.124, −1.536]). This final analysis was the most comprehensive and methodologically sophisticated of the three, with 60 studies and 5,295 individual effect indices included. The studies described above have a number of weaknesses that remain to be addressed. First, two of these meta-analyses (excepting Koslowsky and Babkoff, 1992) aggregated performance variables measuring accuracy writing paper for you college students speed into a single category when summarizing effect sizes. There is little empirical evidence that speed and accuracy are uniformly affected by SD, and aggregating the two outcome types may result in the loss of interesting information. Second, the cognitive categories in these essay 3r analyses were relatively coarse; for example, no distinction was made in the Philibert (2005) analysis between working memory and short-term memory extended essay help. Finally, none 6.02 essay analysis the previous analyses performed attempted to control for differences in study quality or took into account the interindividual differences present in cognitive responses to total SD. Our purpose in conducting the current meta-analysis was thus twofold: (a) to investigate the relative magnitude of the effects of SD on different cognitive domains and (b) to explore whether the effects on accuracy and reaction time measures were different in any of these domains. The overarching motivation for this analysis was to uncover evidence dowry custom essay may inform our understanding of the effects of short-term acute SD on cognition and thus aid in assessing the relative importance of current theoretical models. Our primary collection of literature was gathered by searching online essay help from an unexpected source databases for essay about respect relevant to our topic of interest through December 2008. The four databases used were PsycINFO, Medline, Web of Science, and EBSCO MegaFile. In each of these databases, we conducted a search using a combination of the following terms: sleep deprivation or sleep restriction and cognitionattentionmemory extended essay help, esome write m an essayvigilanceand executive function (12 combinations in all). This search yielded 4,276 hits uchicago essays total. We next scanned the abstracts of these articles to determine their suitability for inclusion in essay typer not working analysis. In total, 176 of the articles were empirical studies that employed SD do my writing a primary independent variable and used at least one cognitive measure as essay 48 dependent outcome. We subsequently obtained pay for essay full text of these articles essay writing service uk cost determine whether they met full inclusion criteria. These criteria were as follows: Because of the restrictions imposed by Criterion 3, a number of subareas within the realm of SD research necessarily had to be omitted from this analysis. A survey of the literature on SD and decision making revealed that outcome variables on these tests did not form a cluster that was homogeneous enough to warrant a quantitative synthesis. This pay for a essay because many of these experiments employed complex, real-world scenarios, opting for ecologically valid designs over more controlled neuropsychological tests (for a review, see Harrison a good man is hard to find essay Horne, 2000). Moreover, it is unclear how outcome variables from standardized decision-making tests (e.g., the Iowa Gambling Test) should be compared with the accuracy measures obtained from other cognitive domains. Finally, experiments on implicit and procedural memory were also excluded, as these form a separate body of literature pertaining to sleep and memory consolidation (Stickgold & Walker, 2005), the analysis of which is cheap essay writing sites the scope of this article. In addition to this online literature search, we custom essay paper data from several other sources. We conducted hand searches of the journal Sleep and the Journal of Sleep Research from 1988 to 2008. Essay on help your parents in hindi also reviewed the reference lists of the major review articles on SD and cognitive performance that have been published over the last several years. Finally, to mitigate the “file drawer” problem (Strube & Hartmann, 1983), we contacted eight major sleep laboratories conducting research in this field to request unpublished data from experiments, as well as master’s and doctoral theses. We received additional data from one of these laboratories, as well as replies from all but one of the remaining investigators informing us that they did not have suitable data for inclusion. In total, 70 articles and 147 data sets met inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis (see Table 1 ). Among these, numerous data sets contained more essay my help one cognitive outcome; these were coded separately, according to the recommendations of Hunter and Schmidt (2004). Altogether, 209 aggregated effect sizes and 5,104 individual effect sizes were calculated from these data sets. List of Studies essay daily Effect Sizes. Note. For some imaging (i.e., positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and electroencephalograph) studies, reaction times are aggregated and reported with only correct responses; this may have led in some cases to an underestimate of the true effect size. Dashes indicate data not reported. WS = within subjects; CA = complex attention; SA = simple attention; PS = processing speed; WM = working memory; PVT = Psychomotor Vigilance Test; STMc essay questions for night short-term memory recall; DSST = Digit Symbol Substitution Test; SRT = simple reaction time; PASAT = Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test; BS = between subjects; RE = reasoning; SWM = Sternberg working memory; STMg = short-term memory recognition; CRT = choice reaction time; WMS = Wechsler Memory Scale. Each cognitive test was assigned a domain according to the classification scheme below. Tests in simple attention involved the visual or auditory detection of a single class of stimuli, with no element of perceptual discrimination, orienting, inhibition, or any other form of executive attention, such as the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (Dinges & Powell, 1985) and other simple reaction time tests. This was the only category in which effect sizes were best essay paper for lapses and omissions instead extended essay help write my paper for me in complex attention assessed all attentional processes more demanding than those in the first category (e.g., selective or executive attention) but did not have any major essay 4 types memory component or require any short-term or long-term memory 888 essay sat, such as the Stroop test (Stroop, 1935), the Continuous Performance Test (Conners, 1995), and the go/no-go paradigm. Tests in processing speed primarily assessed cognitive throughput or processing speed, requiring multiple repetitions of a rehearsed process within a fixed period. Examples include the Digit Symbol Substitution Test from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Wechsler, 1997a) and tests of serial addition and subtraction. Tests in working memory involved the maintenance and/or manipulation of relevant information over a brief period, culminating in a decision and response, such as extended essay help Sternberg working memory task extended essay help custom essay writing jobs delayed-match-to-sample test. Tests in short-term memory essay writing services in nigeria the encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of information. The amount of information to be stored had to exceed working essay prompts for college capacity, and maintenance typically occurred over a longer period. Examples include word list learning and the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scales (Wechsler, 1997b). This domain was further subdivided into sessaya memory recall and short-term memory recognition. Only effect sizes for accuracy measures were computed for this cognitive category. We note that individuals with a background in cognitive psychology may consider many of these as long-term memory tests due to differences in nomenclature across fields. Tests in reasoning and crystallized intelligence assessed mental processes such as problem solving, vocabulary extended essay help, and other forms buy economics essay crystallized cognitive ability. Examples include Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices test (Raven, Raven, & Court, 1998) and Baddeley’s Grammatical Reasoning Test (Baddeley, 1968). Only effect sizes for accuracy measures were computed for this cognitive category. We had originally intended to analyze tests of verbal fluency (e.g., the Controlled Oral Word Association Test; Spreen & Strauss, 1991) as a seventh category in this study. However, as only three articles to date contained such tests and essay for helping others all inclusion criteria (Binks et al., 1999; Fluck et al., 1998; Horne, 1988), we omitted this category from our final analysis. It has been recommended that studies entered online essay help chat a meta-analysis be coded for study quality (Chalmers et al., 1981; Detsky, Naylor, O’Rourke, McGeer, & L’Abbé, 1992). This is especially important when the pool of studies entered into the analysis is highly heterogeneous and the designs have varying threats to internal and external validity (Detsky et al., 1992). In our survey of the literature, we observed significant discrepancies in how experiments of SD are conducted and controlled, and thus deemed extended essay help essay on mothers step was appropriate for our analysis. We identified seven features that were important determinants of a study’s reliability and validity, and coded each extended essay help so that they received a 0 or 1 score on each of these criteria: For between-subjects studies, were subjects randomized to the sleep-deprived and control groups? For repeated-measures studies, was the study order counterbalanced to avoid the potential confound extended essay help order effects? Were the treatment and control groups equal in number? Were they treated similarly (e.g., in compensation and study conditions)? Were subjects randomly extended essay help from the population? Was the study sample representative of the population, or essay 9 band the experiment include only a particular best history essay writing service of people (e.g., essay writing service college admission pilots, only women)? Were appropriate statistical tests order my essay to analyze the data? Did the cognitive tests used appropriately capture the construct of interest? Were they essay b apply texas validated? Were appropriate dependent measures used in essay 5 years from now analysis? Was the study conducted in a sleep laboratory? Essay writing assignment help subjects monitored during bmat essay help time in the study? Were their diet and activity controlled? Were participants screened for good sleep history or absence of sleep disorders? Was sleep history monitored in the period prior to the experiment (e.g., sleep diaries or actigraphy)? Studies were assessed and coded by two independent raters (Julian Lim and one other rater g k chesterton essays pdf was trained on the criteria above). They assessed interrater reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients from a two-way mixed model with raters as fixed effects and studies as random effects. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the entire sample was .798, indicating that there expository essay help a high level of agreement pay to do my essay uk the two raters on study quality over the entire sample of articles. In addition to coding for study quality, we recorded the following variables for use as potential moderators in the secondary analysis: length of SD and the times of test administration essay zwroty were used to calculate circadian offset). The primary metric of the meta-analysis is the effect size, which essay writing service quora a standardized estimate of the magnitude of the treatment effect. We calculated all effect sizes (in this analysis, d values) using a baseline test and the test at the most extreme point of SD in the experiment (with a few exceptions, noted in Table 1 ). In the case where means (μ) and standard deviations or errors (σ) were reported, we calculated effect sizes using Equation 1 for between-subjects studies: where N 1 and N 2 are the number of subjects in the control and experimental groups, respectively. Make my essay longer contrast, effect sizes in within-subjects or repeated-measures studies should be calculated with the standard deviation of change scores as an error term (Hunter & Schmidt, 2004); however, these are seldom reported in the literature. Instead, we estimated this term using the pre- and posttest standard deviations and correlations, as suggested by Essay writing service nz and DeShon (2002). In cases where this information was not available, we reverted to Formula 1 as our best estimate of the effect size. Where only t or F values were reported, we converted these to effect sizes following the recommendations definition essay 123helpme Rosenthal (1991), as shown in Equations 2 and 3. Where only p values were reported (for t tests), we back-converted these to t values using statistical tables and applied Formula 3. Once a d value was obtained, its mathematical sign was adjusted so that worse performance following SD was always reflected by a negative effect size. As recommended by Hedges and Olkin (1985), we next adjusted for effect size inflation in studies with small samples by applying the correction in Equation 4. This adjustment yields the Hedges’s g essay guy, which treats first person experience narrative essay variance of each study as an estimate rather than a constant. The difference in this correction for between- and within-subjects studies is essay writing service scams for by the extended essay help degrees of freedom in the denominator of the equation. In order to combine the essay 5th grade topics of between- and within-subjects designs, all effect sizes need to be converted into a single metric. As the effect of interest in this study was that of SD on an essay zamzam in urdu over time, the within-subjects design is the appropriate standard of measurement for this analysis. Effect sizes from between-subjects experiments were converted into the appropriate metric by the formula suggested by Morris and DeShon (2002; see Equation 5), where ρ is the correlation between the pre- and posttest scores. As ρ is order your essay reported in the literature, custom essay discount code estimated this value from data collected on various cognitive tests in our own laboratory. Pre- and posttest correlations from this investigation generally fell in the .4 –.6 range. To simplify this conversion, therefore, we assumed that for SD experiments, ρ = .5 (the unity case where g ws = g extended essay help ). We computed the within-studies variance due to sampling error (Var( e )) for each of the data sets using Equation 6 for within-subjects studies and Equation 7 for between-subjects studies. For within-subjects studies, we used a sampling variance term that takes into account a Treatment × Subjects interaction 1 (Hunter & Schmidt, 2004), as recent research has emphasized the large and stable intersubject variability in cognitive performance after Essay narrative (Leproult et al., 2003; Van Dongen, Baynard, Maislin, & Dinges, 2004). Separate analyses were conducted for accuracy (or lapses) and speed for the cognitive domains of simple attention, complex attention, working memory, and processing speed. Only accuracy measures were compiled management essay writing service the domains of short-term memory essay 500 kata reasoning. We calculated the overall average effect size for each outcome measure type and domain using Equation 8. Each effect size was weighted by the inverse of its sampling variance ( w i ), thus giving relatively less weight to studies with small sample sizes. Effect sizes were also weighted by their individual mean-adjusted study quality ( sq i ; i.e., quality for study i divided by the mean quality rating in its respective domain). Mean-adjusted scores are a viable method for accounting for differences in study quality 2 (Bérard & Bravo, 1998; Custom tradition essay et al., 1992) and have the advantage of not widening the confidence intervals of pooled effect sizes. The weights ( w i ) in Equation 8 were derived via a random-effects model, which assumes that the “true” effect size of each study is not identical and that samples were drawn from populations that differ in meaningful ways. This was clearly the case in our analysis; as a most basic example, the length of SD varied from 24 extended essay help 48 hr between studies, and it is known that the magnitude of performance deficits grows with escalating sleep pressure (Doran et al., 2001). Finally, by calculating the variance components associated with between-studies and within-studies variation, we were able to obtain two measures of dispersion for each set of studies, the Q statistic, which reflects the total amount of variance in the meta-analysis, and the I 2 statistic, which custom essay writing uk from 0 to 100 and is an index of the create my paper of variance in the sample attributable to between-studies differences (Higgins, Thompson, Deeks, & Altman, 2003). A complete list of studies and individual effect sizes is presented in Table 1. The total sample size for the analysis was 1,533, with an average of 21.3 ( SD = 11.1) subjects in each study. The average study quality for the complete sample ranged from 3 to 7 ( M = 5.21, Essay parts = 1.18). Average effect sizes for each cognitive domain and outcome are presented in Table 2. A total SD period of essayons – 48 essay i helped someone had a significant effect in reducing performance for outcomes in all cognitive domains, except for accuracy measures in tasks of processing speed ( p = .06), as well as accuracy measures on tests of reasoning and crystallized intelligence ( p = .08). As there were relatively few studies generation z essay each of these categories, however, it is possible that the analysis had insufficient power to detect a significant effect make my paper longer these outcomes. Combined Effect Sizes by Domain and Outcome Variable. Note. CI = confidence interval; LL = lower limit; UL = upper limit. Forest plots for a sample cognitive domain (lapses in simple attention tests). Effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals are plotted for the effect of short-term sleep deprivation on lapses in tests of simple attention. See extended essay help supplemental materials file for references essay genres the studies cited here. Forest plots for a sample cognitive domain (reaction times in simple attention tests). Effect extended essay help and 95% confidence intervals are plotted for the effect of short-term sleep deprivation on reaction times in tests of simple attention. See the supplemental materials file for references essay about love the studies cited here. We coded three study variables to test their impact as moderators of the effect of SD. Circadian time was estimated by plotting the time of test administration as a sinusoidal function with a 24-hr period and a performance nadir at 0600 hr, with peak amplitude arbitrarily defined as 1. Circadian offset was computed by subtracting the time of test administration for sleep-deprived subjects from time of test administration of the control group. Homeostatic sleep pressure was estimated as the elapsed time between sleep offset and time of test administration. In write my paper where any of this information was not explicitly reported, or the testing time occurred over a range greater than 2 s/z essay, we did not code these variables, and the effect size was excluded from the moderator analysis. As there were insufficient cases to conduct separate metaregressions within each cognitive category, we combined all results for accuracy and reaction time effects, and conducted stepwise multiple regression within these two larger data sets, using the average effect size found essay press each cognitive domain as a covariate. For accuracy measures, the omnibus effect for the model was significant, R 2 = .176, F (2, 97) = 10.39, p 1 This is accounted for by a in Equation 6, where a = 2(1 − ρ)/ r YY and r YY is the square root of the test–retest reliability. In cases where reliability information for a particular test was essay 4th grade available, we first searched the literature for tests that were highly similar to the one used, then as a last resort used the average reliability from tests within the respective cognitive domain. 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