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Historical Perspectives On Islamic Dress ©1996 -2018 womeninworldhistory.com. In December 2001, Nicholas Kristof reported in the New The most legit online writting service Times that although Afghan women were no longer require to wear the burqa, they did so anyway. And that "accosting a female stranger to interview her is a shocking breach of protocol. 'We obey our essay headers. that is our culture' said a 23-year-old." Most husbands, he wrote, believe the Pashto phrase: 'A woman belongs in informative essay 8th grade house - or in a grave.' This age-old belief is not exclusive to Afghan culture but, in varying degrees, historically the help essay thesis be found within the ideology of many cultures, including those in the West. In the Muslim world in some areas it is reinforced custom essay meister discount code the belief that the honor of the family resides in the conduct of its custom essay meister discount code. Honor depends on a woman remaining chaste; should she be violated in any way, the men of the family risk being seen as weak and perhaps even being ostracized. Thus, in order to be respected by men, and protected from them, in public a woman should not flout her looks. Of equal importance is the stated Qu'ranic principle which requires women to dress modestly essay help uwo public. Although definitions of what this entails vary regionally, many Muslim women custom essay meister discount code themselves to some extent in deference to their religion. Women activists in the Muslim world are less preoccupied with what women wear than with securing other freedoms such as access to education, essay guy health care for their families, or wider opportunities for work. Commonly custom essay meister discount code argue for women's rights under the supposition of a culture-specific struggle, focusing on f scott fitzgerald essays pdf implementation and activation of human rights claimed to be granted by Islam. Feminist consciousness and action may indeed exist in greater measure with expository essay 8th grade wearer of Islamic dress than with one who wears up-to-date Western style clothes! Rather than offering unasked for advice, non-Muslims might educate themselves with regard to local customs and religious belief, and offer support when it is requested by people within the culture itself. Following is an excerpted essay from a section in the curriculum unit Women in the Muslim World. The essay provides an historical look at Islamic dress. The section contains custom essay meister discount code source accounts on the topic from a variety of times and places. Most Muslim women today do not wear a full face essay konularД±. It is more common free essay writing service uk see women in hijabloose clothing topped by a type of scarf worn essay writer online the head and under the chin. Women don't share a common style nor have the same reasons for wearing hijab. For many it reflects the belief that they are following God's commandments, are dressing according to "the correct standard of modesty," or simply are wearing the type of traditional clothes they feel comfortable in. A Complex History of the Veil What constitutes modest clothing has changed over time. Like most customs, what women wear has masters essay help the practices of a region and the social position of the wearer. The veil itself predates Islam by buy quarterly essay centuries. In the Near East, Assyrian kings first introduced both the seclusion of women in the royal grade 9 essay writing and the veil. Prostitutes and slaves, however, were told not to veil, and were slashed if they disobeyed this law. Beyond the Near East, the practice of hiding one's face and largely living in seclusion appeared in classical Greece, in the Byzantine Christian world, in Persia, and custom essay meister discount code India among custom essay meister discount code caste Rajput women. Muslims in their first century at first were relaxed about female dress. When the niece of Aishah Bint Abu Bakr (the Prophet’s wife), Aisha bint Talha was asked by her husband Musab to veil her face, she answered, "Since the Almighty hath put on me the stamp of beauty, custom essay meister discount code is my wish that the public should view the beauty and thereby recognized His grace unto them. On no account, therefore, will I veil custom essay meister discount code As Islam reached other lands, regional practices, including the covering of women, were adopted custom essay meister discount code the early Muslims. Yet it was only in the second Islamic century that the veil became common, first used among the powerful and rich as a status symbol. The Qu'ranic prescription to "draw their veils over their bosoms" became interpreted by some as an injunction to veil one's hair, neck and ears. Throughout Islamic history only a part of the urban classes were veiled and secluded. Rural and nomadic women, the majority of the population, were not. For a woman to assume a protective veil and stay primarily within the house was a sign that her family had the means to enable her to custom essay meister discount code so. Since nomad women rarely veiled, in the early stages of those Islamic countries with nomadic roots, women often were allowed to go unveiled, even in town. In the years of the early Safavid dynasty, women were unveiled, although the custom was changed by late Safavid times. Among the Turks, who came into Essay_007 as nomads, Ibn Battuta in the fourteenth century saw what he called a "remarkable thing. The Turkish women do not veil themselves. Not only royal ladies but also wives of merchants and common people will sit in a wagon drawn by horses. The windows are open and their faces are visible." The How much should i pay for an essay Ages The veil did not appear as a common rule to be followed until around the tenth century. In the Middle Ages numerous laws were developed which most often placed women at a greater disadvantage than in earlier times. In some periods, such as under the Mamluks in Egypt, repeated decrees were issued, urging strictness in veiling and arguing against the right of women to take part in activities outside their home. One commentator, Ibn al-Hajj, claimed this was a good thing because a woman in Cairo would "go out in custom essay meister discount code grade 4 essay topics as if she were a shining bride, walking in the middle of custom essay meister discount code road and jostling men." He cautioned shop keepers to be careful when a woman came in to buy, "for if she was one of those women dressed up in delicate clothes, exposing her wrists, he should leave the selling transaction and give her his back until she leaves the hindi essay 8th class peacefully. " The Nineteenth Century By the second half of the nineteenth century, intellectuals, cheap custom essay, and liberals began to denounce the idea of women's protective clothing. This group was sensitive about the advances western nations had made, and wanted to push their countries toward a more western-style society. One way of achieving this, they felt, was to change the status of women. To them this meant abandoning traditional customs, including protective covering and the veil which they saw as a symbol of the exclusion of women from public life and education. In the early years, men were in the forefront of this effort. Qasim Amin, who in 1899 wrote The Emancipation of Womancalled for new interpretations of essay help for english Quran with regard to limited divorce, polygamy, and wearing the veil. He argued that such practices had nothing to do with Islam, but were a result of customs of peoples who had become Muslims. Enormous debate followed his work. Some of his detractors were women. Egyptian writer Malak Hifni Nassef worried custom essay meister discount code women "moving from that dark and familiar state" before they were ready. She said that first women needed a "true" education and better knowledge of the world, and men needed to learn not to harass unveiled women. She resented men telling women what they should do: "If he orders us to custom essay meister discount code, we veil, and if he now demands that we unveil, we unveil. There is no doubt that he has erred grievously against us in decreeing our rights in the past and no doubt that he errs grievously in decreeing our rights now." The Impact of Nationalism The ideas of Qasim Amin reflected those who closely linked the emancipation of women and rejection of veiling to national movements for independence. For this group, the changing roles of custom essay meister discount code in society were important ways to convince the overseas colonial rulers that their subject nations were ready to govern themselves. Women were encouraged to be symbols of the new state. Those who resisted these ideas of social progress essay on help in hindi mocked. Turkish elites, for example, mocked women covered in black, calling them "beetles." Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, who began to build a secular nation-state in 1923, denounced the write my essay best website, calling it demeaning and a hindrance to civilized nation. But he did not outlaw it. Shortly after, in Iran in the 1930s, Reza Shah Pahlevi did, issuing a proclamation banning the veil outright. For many women, this decree in its suddenness was not liberating but c rajagopalachari essay. Some refused to leave home for fear of having their veil torn from their face by the police. Male leaders of nationalist movements encouraged women to join them and appear more freely in public. Slowly some women did. In 1910, a young Turkish woman attracted attention by daring to have herself photographed. At about the same time, educated women in Turkey began to leave the house unveiled, but still wearing hijab. The most dramatic public unveiling was undertaken by Huda Custom essay meister discount code in Egypt in 1923. Following custom essay meister discount code were Ibtihaj Kaddura in Lebanon, Adila Abd al-Qudir al-Jazairi in Syria, and much later Habibah Manshari in Tunis. Moroccan scholar Fatima Mernissi remembers the fight her mother had with her father about replacing her heavier traditional veil with "a tiny triangular black veil made of sheer silk chiffon. This drove Father crazy: 'It is so transparent! You might as well go unveiled!' But soon the small veil, the litham essay on lets help the environment by, became the fashion, with all the nationalists' wives wearing it all over Fez - to gatherings in the mosque and to public celebrations, such as when political prisoners were liberated by the French." Women's organizations also played an important role in transforming dress, although this was a minor issue in their struggle for women's political rights and for legal reforms. It should be stressed that for many women it was not the fact of wearing the veil that was the issue, but that the veil symbolized the relegation of women to a secluded world that did not allow them to participate in public affairs. Revival of Hijab As the century progressed, a revival of veiling and introduction of more modest dress reasserted itself. Opposition to E-commerce essay topics required clothing had never been truly universal. Among the lower middle classes it had always tended to be defended in the face of change. Even in Turkey where the state had pushed the idea of reform, new ideas and styles of dress did not reach women in the hinterland. In areas where Islam was resisted and believers felt essay writing services in the united states, like Indonesia and the Philippines, Essay checklist women began to dress more conservatively as a way to assert who they were. During militant custom essay meister discount code for independence, such as that against the French in Algeria or the British in Egypt, some women purposely kept the veil in defiance of western styles. It meant they also could take part in veiled and silent demonstrations, or could hide weapons under long robes. There were other reasons for taking up and defending hijab. One was the growing reaffirmation of nation identity and rejection of values and styles seen as western. In response to Egypt's catastrophic loss to Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War, and the seeming failure of secularism, there also was a push to return to Islamic laws custom essay meister discount code had been abandoned. Modernization was seen as negative, a phenomena which encouraged people to reject not only Islamic but all indigenous traditions. Wearing hijab came to symbolize not the inferiority of the culture in comparison to western ways, but its uniqueness and superiority. The real surge toward donning hijab came with Iran's revolution. Women were seen as key elements in achieving changes in public morality and private behavior. Unveiled women were mocked, called unchaste "painted dolls," and were punished if custom essay meister discount code appeared in public without proper covering. In countries beyond Iran in the 1970s, demonstrations and sit-ins appeared domyessay opposition to the required western style dress code for university students and civil servants. Today With the trend to revive or create Islamist movements, women have continued to take up the modest covering of the hijab. Within women's groups the debate over its use also continues. Some progressive groups, such as the Women's Action Forum (WAF) in Pakistan, explicitly condemn all attempts to impose a dress code on women. They argue that those who do not conform to it are stigmatized. They say that it denies women the freedom to decide on their own appearance. Women's groups endorsing a strict interpretations of Islam, on the other hand, aggressively promote dress codes, putting out information sheets listing its requirements. For women essay proposal to write my paper in one day professional and public social lives, wearing hijab allows freer movement outside the confines of the home. In leaving their homes, this upwardly mobile group is actually defining new roles for themselves, not defending traditional ones. In the same way, students who take up hijab are able to move into areas that were once closed to essay brainstorming, such as attending classes, discussion groups and religious activities. Wearing conservative clothing protects them from sexual harassment and objectification. An Iranian school girl states, "We want to stop custom essay meister discount code from treating us like sex objects, as they have always done. We want them to custom essay meister discount code our appearance and to be attentive to our personalities and mind. We want them to take us seriously and treat us how to buy an essay equals and custom essay meister discount code just chase us around for our bodies and physical looks." - Does your school have a dress code, require uniforms, or have some other standard of dress? If yes, what does it say? If no, should there be a clothing policy? Is there a difference between a dress code and a policy requiring uniforms? - Give some examples to show that over time how women dressed reflected the customs of a particular region. - What role did the secular state play in transforming ideas about women's clothing? - Identify times when men have been compelled to dress in a certain way. Find out Islamic requirements for men's appearance and clothing, today. - Identify arguments that defend the hijab the declaration of innocence essay a symbol of liberation. That see hijab as a symbol of repression. Omaima Abou-Bakr, "Islamic Feminism: What's in a Name?," Middle East Women's Studies Review, Winter/Spring, 2001. Leila Ahmed, Women and Gender essay typing jorunal Islam: Roots of a Modern Debate, Yale University press, 1992. Margot Badran, Feminism, Islam, and Nation: Gender and the Making of Modern Egypt, Princeton University Press. Herbert Bodman and Nayereh Tohidi, editors, Women in Muslim Societies: Diversity Within Unity, 1998. Fatma Gocek & Shiva Balaghi, editors, Reconstructing Gender in the Middle East: Tradition, Identity and Power, Columbia University Press, 1995. Ramsya Harike & Elsa Marston, Women in the Middle East: Tradition and Change, Franklin Watts, 1996. Young Adult. Institute of Islamic Information and Education Brochure, The Question of Hijab: Suppression or Liberation? Nikki Keddie, "The Past and Present of Women in the Muslim World," Journal of World History, Spring, 1990. Nikki Keddie & Jasmine Rostam-Kolayi, que es sayco y acinpro, "Women custom essay meister discount code Twentieth-Century Religious Politics," Journal of Women's History, Winter, 1999. Wadud-Muhsin, Qur'an and Woman, Malaysia, 1992. (Available from Arab World Resources). Women in the Muslim World Personalities and Perspectives from the Past.