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Thinking Sociologically website that helps with scholarship essyas Bauman and May way This web page looks at the way of Zygmunt Baumanwho published a book called Thinking Sociologically in 1990 and a younger man, called Tim Maywho revised the book in 2001 . Bauman and May write about three strategies of thinking sociologically (which are not quite the same as the three classic thinkers). Marx, Durkheim and Weber are dead sociologists, but Bauman and May are still with us. Bauman and May's way of thinking sociologically is to consider our individual actions as part of webs of interdependency between people. They conceptualise an interplay between our actions and what, at one point, they call the structure of the world. The book starts with social action and webs of interdependency and works towards concepts of social structure, social order and social boundaries. As it proceeds, it considers the questions that this way of thinking raises in particular contexts. Bauman was born and educated in Poland, but since 1971 has taught sociology at Leeds University. When Bauman was born (1925)Poland lay between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the east and Germany on the west. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was, as its name implies, a communist country essay how internet help students official social theory was marxism. In Germany, Max Weberone of the founders of sociology, had died in 1920. Two of the greatest influences on Bauman's sociology were marxism and the critique of marxism made by Weber and other German theorists. Adolf Hitler was a major influence on the lives and work of Zygmunt and his wife, Janina (below). The first volume of Hitler's Mein Kampf was published in the same year (1925) that Zygmunt was born. Read the summary of Mein Kampf published in an English dictionary of politics in 1939remembering that Zygmunt and Janina were both Jews. It was through reading Janina's memoirs that Zygmunt confronted the reality of the holocaust and the treatment of Jews during the second world war. His Modernity and The Holocaust (1989) was written as a consequence. The fourth chapter of Thinking Sociologicallyarguing that aspects of modern society involve a "silencing of moral considerations", includes the theories that Zygmunt Bauman developed from reflecting on his wife's experiences. What is Sociology ? and how is it distinguished from other ways of thinking? Bauman and May argue that the following answer is wrong or over-simplified. What do you think? " history is about the actions that took place in the past, whereas sociology concentrates on current actions. anthropology tells us of human societies. at different stages of development from our own. " ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 3) What, according to Bauman and May, is Sociology ? How is it distinguished from other ways of thinking? "Sociology is distinguished through viewing human actions as elements of wider figurations. " ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 5) Bauman and May argue that sociology is about actions which are social. By "actions" they mean things that individuals do that are meaningful in some way. By "social" they mean that the action involves other individuals in some way. Sociology views human actions, not in isolation, but as part of a same day essay network of human action, in which our actions are influenced by the intentions and actions of others, and vice versa. This is how Malcolm Richardson explains this: "When I'm alone in my room and talk to myself, this is not social action, because no one else is involved. However, when I'm speaking as a participant of a seminar group, this action is social because it is part of a discussion involving others. What I say, or don't say, is in part, private writing by what others say, or don't say." Does this mean that things are only social when you are with people and are not social when you are alone? Some sociologists (Durkheimfor example) argue that we are part of a social network that stretches back into the depths of human history and all around the globe. Think about what you are doing when you read a book by a dead author. Your mind is interacting with the thoughts of someone who is no longer alive. But if you fall asleep doing your homework in the library, there may be a lot of people around, but you are not interacting with them. The first part of Thinking Sociologically is called "Action, Identity and Understanding in Everyday Life." Everyday life is something we all live, without being sociologists. Bauman and May appear to use the term "common sense" to refer to the ideas we all have that enable us to live our lives. "All of us live in the company of other people and interact with each other. In the process we display an extraordinary amount of website that helps with scholarship essyas knowledge that enable us to get on with the business of everyday life." ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 6) This is the "rich yet disorganised, non-systematic, often inarticulate and ineffable knowledge that we call common sense" ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 6) Tacit knowledge is there without being necessarily stated. If it is inarticulate and ineffable it is unspoken and possibly not capable of being expressed. "tacit knowledge. orients our conduct without us necessarily being able to express how and why it operates in particular ways" ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 21) Bauman and May say that "the power of common sense depends on its self-evident character. In its turn, this rests on the routine, habitual character of daily life. We need this in order to get on with our lives. When repeated often enough, things tend to become familiar and the familiar is seen as self-explanatory. " ( Bauman and May 2001, p 10) How do common sense and sociology differ? If you do sociology the Bauman and May way there is a essay help someone between common sense and sociology because sociology is about the things we do and the meanings they have for us, in relation to other people. So, how do common sense and sociology differ? What does a student of sociology do that everybody essay on pollution not doing all the time? Bauman and May suggest that. 1) "Sociology . makes an effort to subordinate itself to the rigorous rules evaluation essay help responsible speech". 2) Sociology draws on a larger field of knowledge than common sense ( Bauman and May 2001, p.10) 4) Sociology does not take things for granted, but examines that which is taken-for-granted. ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 12) Bauman and May say that. "physical and biological sciences do not appear to be concerned with spelling out their relationship to common sense" ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 5) "Common sense. appears to have nothing to write my concert report essay of the matters that preoccupy physicists, chemists essay editor astronomers" ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 6) Bauman and May argue that common sense is not thought to have much relevance to physics, chemistry and astronomy because "the objects explored by the physical sciences appear only under very special circumstances, for example, through the lens of gigantic telescopes. Products of such processing then have to withstand the critical scrutiny of other scientists. They will not have to compete with common sense for the simple reason that there is no commonsensical point of view with respect to the matters they pronounce on" ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 6) HOWEVER, they argue "scientific findings may have social, political and economic implications that, in any democratic society, are not for scientists to have the last word on" ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 6) Bauman and May think it is useful to think of three perspectives or my academic and career goals essay about welding having shaped what is thought of as sociology today. These are what they call scientismhermeneutics and pragmatism. Elements of each of these three ways of thinking sociologically have converged to shape what is accepted as sociological knowledge. ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 170) The first perspective is what they call scientismThis is trying to be scientific in a way that is seen as similar to other sciences, such as astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, zoology, neurology and (possibly) psychology. This approach, known as positivismis often traced back to the work of Auguste Comte (1798-1857), but Bauman and May focus on the later work of Emile Durkheim , Durkheim, following Comte, thought that sociology should be established as a science in its own right, related to and coordinated with the other sciences, and with its own specific field of study. "Durkheim found this in social facts. These essay help for college application collective phenomena that are irreducible to any one individual. As shared beliefs and patterns of behaviour, they can be treated as things to be studied in an objective, detached fashion. These things appear to individuals as a reality that is tough, stubborn and independent of their will" ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 171) The second perspective is what they call hermeneutics. To a large extent, this is Bauman and May's way of thinking sociologically. If you have understood what they have already said about sociology, you will have begun to understand hermeneutics. In 1978, not long after he settled in England, Bauman published a book called Hermeneutics and Social Theory - Approaches to understanding in which he wrote: "The life-long methodological preoccupations of Weber, centred around the categories of understanding and interpretation. " ( (Bauman, Z. 1978) p. 68) Understanding and interpretation are the two words that help most to explain in English what website that helps with scholarship essyas is. In German, understanding is Verstehen. The word hermeneutics is based on an ancient Greek word for interpreter, and means the scientific (or scholarly) study of interpretations. Some things in the world we can explain in terms of causes and effects. Physics, for example, thinks of planetary bodies as exerting a pull on one another that results in the planet's path curving. As a result, planets circulate around the sun. Human beings are subject to the same laws of cause and effect. If you fall over, the earth will website that helps with scholarship essyas you towards it and you will hit the ground. But we need something other than the laws of cause and effect to explain human actions. This is what Max Weber 's way of thinking sociologically focuses on. " In action is included all website that helps with scholarship essyas behaviour when and in so far as the acting individual attaches a subjective meaning to it. " ( Weber, M. 1947 p.88) "That human actions are meaningful is the foundation of hermeneutics " ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 172) Imagine that you are reading form 4 essay historic document, a letter for example. We will call this "the text". What should you be doing in order to explain it? Hermeneutics argues that you should first be trying to imagine what the author meant by it, and then that you should relate his or her meaning to the social circumstances of the time. "In order to understand its meaning, the interpreters of the text must put themselves in the author's 'place'; that cheap essay site, to see the text through the author's eyes and think the author's thoughts. They should then link the author's actions to the historical situation in which they find themselves" ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 172) An example of Weber doing this is provided website that helps with scholarship essyas his famous book The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (Weber, M. 1930 ). In this, Weber related his interpretation of the way different religious groups understood their actions to the effects of their actions on economic development. By "demonstration by effect", Bauman and May are referring to the American theory called pragmatism. ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 173), or instrumentalism. This is their third strategy. Bauman and May name William James (p. 175) and Robert Park (p. 175) as part of the American pragmatic school. John Dewey at website that helps with scholarship essyas University of Chicago developed pragmatism as website that helps with scholarship essyas formal philosophy and his colleague, George Herbert Mead is the main member of this school discussed in Thinking Sociology. See below. Bauman and May are critical of pragmatism's website that helps with scholarship essyas of truth. This is an aspect of pragmatism that is stressed by William James. But if what pragmatism says about truth is it weakness, the theory of human action developed by George Herbert Mead, may be its strong point. The pragmatic theory of truth. William James described pragmatism, as taught by John Dewey and others at Chicago University, as "the instrumental view of truth. "'truth' means. that ideas . Become true just in so far as they help us to get into satisfactory relation with other parts of our experience, to summarize them and get about among them by conceptual short-cuts instead of following the interminable succession of particular phenomena. Any idea upon which we can ride, so to speak; any idea that will carry us prosperously from any one part of our experience to any other part, linking things satisfactorily, working securely, simplifying, saving labor; is essay i want to be a teacher for just so much, true in so far forth, true instrumentally. " James, W. 1907 p. 58) Mead's theory of human action. Weber's idea about sociology is that it should be a discursive essay 123helpme of social action. Action is something that has meaning to the individual who does it. Sociology should start inside the individual with what his or her actions mean to him or her, and work outwards to understanding any laws or regularities that govern the whole of society. The first three chapters of Bauman and May are about identity. Identity is what something or someone is. Your identity is who you are. Who do you think you are? " Socialisation never ends in our lives. For this reason sociologists distinguish between the stages of socialisation (primary, secondary and tertiary) " ( Bauman and May 2001, p.26) Durkheim 's theory of socalisation is illustrated in this chart constructed by Dina Ibrahim. Dina quotes Everett Essay due "for Durkheim, the school had a crucial and clearly specified function: to create a new being, shaped according to the needs of society. Only by imposing limits can the child be liberated from the inevitable frustrations of incessant striving". (Wilson. E. 1973p.xv) Human beings are both free and constrained. The contradictions investigated by Rouuseau are investigated in different way by Durkheim, George Herbert Mead and Bauman essay books May. By "man"Rousseau means human beings. Studying the relationship between freedom and constraint is one of the ways that social theorists have studied what essay writing help books us human. Rousseau made his statement about freedom and constraint at the beginning of a chapter on how we pass from a "state of nature" to a "state of society". This was also the main interest of George Herbert Mead in the twentieth century. Mead, like Essay write english, was interested in the evolution of animal like humans into social humans, and what the difference between animals and humans is. Bauman and May argue that we experience ourselves as free in the sense of being self-determining, but also experience ourselves as "constrained by circumstances" ( Bauman and May 2001, p.17) "We often consider ourselves to be the authors of our destinies and so have the power to act in determining our conduct and controlling our lives. Yet is this really how life works?" ( Bauman and May 2001, p.18) We list below the main constraints on our freedom and ability to choose that Bauman and May talk about. Habits, actions that we do without thinking, are necessary. Bauman and May write about. But, we are held responsible, even for our habits. "if we break rules that are meant to guide people's conduct, then we may be punished. The act of punishment is intended as a confirmation that we are responsible for our actions. Rules, in this sense, orient not only our actions, but also their coordination with others. " ( Bauman and May 2001, p.18) "How we act and see ourselves is informed by the expectations of the groups to which we belong" ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 20) ". we owe the ends which we pursue, the means employed in their pursuit and how to distinguish between those who may and may not assist us in the process, to the groups to which we belong. An enormous amount of practical knowledge is thereby gained without which we would be unable to conduct our daily activites and orient ourselves to particular life projects." ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 21) But as the group enables us, it also contrains our freedom. The groups we belong to impose cultural constraints - values, ideas, beliefs, customs, and expectations. Material resources (lack of essay writing student and social service, employment, or decent education, housing, health care). Deficits in knowledge and experience (limiting career choices). Although we might feel that 'others' often constrain our freedom to act -we rely on 'others' for our sense of self - of who we are. Self-identity - who am I? We gain our sense of 'self' through our daily interaction with others - through 'Symbolic Interaction' . Our ability to communicate and interact with write my essay in 24 hours uk, is due to our possession of a 'self'. But, Mead argued, we are not website that helps with scholarship essyas with a self. His contribution was to show how a self can develop from our animal nature, and how, as it does, mind (the power to think) and society emerge as well. Mead's key work is, Mind, Self, and Societyput together psychology essay help his students after his deathand published in 1934. The theatrical idea of playing a role is one that is used by many sociologists, including Mead . Mead argues that there is no "general tendency" of animals or humans to imitate one another. In humans, copying other people is usually a conscious act. When children learn to do things that others do they are, he argues, creatively playing a role. "A child plays at being a mother, at being a teacher, at being a policeman; that is, it is taking different roles, as we say." We need, therefore, to understsnd how the ability to play roles developed. In psychological terms, animals and humans are subjects that perceive objects. A stone does not see the ground on which it lies. Animals, including humans, have interior (subjective) images in our heads of the things around us. In this diagram, the carrot is the object that the subject (the person) sees. We could say that there is a reflection of the carrot in the person's head that we call the dog essay help. This idea remains, even when the carrot is not visible any longer. Mead argues that human beings differ from animals in being able to see ourselves as objects. We have an image or idea of who we are. "The self has the characteristic that it is an object to itself, and that characteristic distinguishes it from other objects and from the body" Mead called this self-image that we have me. The unreflective being that we share with animals, he called I. These are not two separate people, but different aspects of the process of living as a human being. As a socialised human being, you ( I ) have an image of yourself ( me ) Mead 's life work focused on developing a theory of how this ability to see ourselves developed from our original animal natures. Bauman and May (pages 22-23) suggest that we "internalise group understandings" in three stages. Their stages are based on a text-book chapter by Herbert Blumerin 1937that first applied the term "symbolic interactionists" to theorists such as Mead. Essay 1 english question paper may like to read Blumer on these three stages . Two of these stages (play and game) can be related easily to Mead's ideas. The first (imitation) is more easily related to Blumer's own theories. Mead sketched grade 6 essay samples many stages in the development of the ability to see ourselves as we think others see us. According to Mead, these are also stages in the development of the mind (the power to think) and of society. So as you study how your identity (self) develops, you are also studying the origin and development of thought and society. Mead 's theory has mind, self and society "emerging" (developing) from the previous natural inter-actions (gestures) of animals. Animals play at fighting without actually doing so. The moves in this play-acting are what Mead calls gestures. A snap in the air without actually biting is like a symbol accounting essay writing service the real thing. Language and symbol enable play in human children to go much further than it does in animals. In human children, the roles are internalised so that a child can run through the play in write a assignment or her own mind. This is how the concept of self arises. The child learns to essay writing services in china about him or herself as if he or she were another person and to see how he or she interacts with other people on the stage of life. Bringing together what Bauman and May say about prejudice in different parts of Thinking Sociologically. At the end of chapter one, Bauman and May say that societies and groups seek to justify the degree of freedom and lesser degree of dependence that they enjoy in relation to other groups. They add that "when gaps in our knowledge of others are left, they are frequently filled by prejudice. How sociologists look at these issues is a subject to which we shall turn in chapter 2. ( Bauman and May 2001, p.27) The index links prejudice to group essay jabber (pages 32-34, "barriers to social exchange" (page 38), the status of limited humanity (pages 75-76 and to the essay zaman prasejarah of raceracism and xenophobia. The link to "status of limited humanity" is to the section "Morality and Action". Although this section does not use the word prejudice, we can conclude from it that, for Bauman cheap essay writing help May, Prejudice is when one group perceives another group as less than human. " Alfred Schütz. suggested that from any individual point of view" other paople can be arranged in a line from those we have a lot to do with to those who are furthest from us. (Bauman and May p.29). Schutz developed phenomenological sociology from the philosophy of Edmund Husserl . Zygmunt Bauman described his way essay on help someone thinking sociologically as hermeneuticswhich has a lot in common with phenomenology. ". our self-identity is bound up with architecture essay writing service social identities that we portray to others and those we best apa papers in our everyday existence" ( Bauman and May 2001, p.30) The linguistics theory of binary opposition argues that concepts are defined in contrast with other items in the same system of thought. What characterises each most is being whatever the others are not. See self and other. Categorising people by binary opposition des not necessarily imply that we fear or oppose them. Bauman and May frequently suggest that it does, but they also raise the possibility that it might not. In their "Questions for Reflection" (p.183), for example, they ask essay heading mla there is a common bond that humanity shares, and this is the theme of the section on morality and action in chapter four . Bauman and May say that. "oppositions become tools that we draw upon to chart the world" ( Bauman essay on help someone May 2001, p.30) They say we distinguish. "between 'us' and 'them'. One stands for the group to which we feel we belong and understand. The other. stands for a group which we cannot access or do not wish to belong" (Bauman, Z. and May, T. 2000p.30) And argue that the solidarity of the "in-group" is dependent on the "imaginary opposition" of an "out-group". "an out-group is precisely that imaginary opposition to itself that the in-group needs for its self-identity, for its cohesiveness, for its inner solidarity and emotional security" (Bauman, Z. and May, T. 2000p.31) Bauman and May contrast "face to face groups" to larger groups we can relate to in our imagination. The larger groups include classes, genders, ethnicities and nations. These, they say, lack the substance that can derive from daily interaction (in a family, do my school essay example) and "no effort to induce loyalty in large groups stands a chance of success if there is not an accompanying practice of hostility towards and out-group" (Bauman, Z. and May, T. 2000p.32) In this situation, constant vigilance is needed to guard against the prejudices of refusing to recognise virtues in the enemies, of condemning the enemy for what we excuse in ourselves, and from adopting immoral means in conflict with the out-group which we would condemn if they employed them. Zygmunt Bauman and his wife Janina Lewinson/Bauman had similar Jewish backgrounds to Henri Tajfel who wrote "Cognitive aspects of prejudice" in 1969. Reading Janina's account of her childhood in Nazi Germany helps us to understand the significance of these issues for the Baumans. ". we are us, as long as there is 'them', makes sense only together, in their oppositions to each other. Both concepts derive their website that helps with scholarship essyas from the dividing line they service. Without such a division, without the possibility of opposing ourselves to 'them', we would be hard put to make sense of our identities" ( Bauman and May 2001, pp 34-35) "'Strangers' defy the above divisions. Indeed, what they oppose is the opposition itself: live essay help free is: divisions of any kind in terms of boundaries that guard them and thus clarify the social world which results from these practices" ( Bauman and May 2001, p.35) The stranger is someone you do not know that enters your life rather than being outside it. Georg Simmel argued that sociologists should study what is involved in relating to all people classified as strangers - what "shape" does our relationship to "strangers take"? An example from Janina Bauman's experiencethat you could think about, is the strangers who sheltered Jewish people from the Nazis. A very different example would be the strangers you passed in the street today. [LINKING PASSAGE NEEDED] "In cases where territorial separation is incomplete. spiritual separation grows in importance. Barriers of prejudice may. prove far more effective than the thickest of walls" ( Bauman and May 2001, p.38) "The societies in which most of essay on my school live are urban; that is people live together in great density, travel continuously and in the course r&b essay their daily business they enter diverse areas inhabited by diverse people." ( Bauman and May 2001, p.38) Bauman and May distinguish between groups that are "separated" (by countryside, for example) and "urban" societies. ( Bauman and May 2001, p.38) We could think of a village as an example of a separated community (see chapter three on communities). In the village, everyone knows one another. The villagers do not have to identify themselves because everyone knows who they are. Strangers are people who visit the village, not people who live there. In the city, however, "We live among strangers, among whom we are strangers ourselves" ( Bauman and May 2001, p.39) To segregate is to separate one group of people from another. The village community is separated from other groups by countryside. In the city we have to actively sustain our separation from others. Bauman and May identify processes by which we do this: This 1925 chart by Chicago sociologist Ernest Watson Burgess depicts the zones in which Chicago "naturally" developed. "When moving within these areas and the gaze of strangers who have the potential to disrupt our self-identities, the most we can do is to try to remain inconspicuous, or at any rate to avoid attracting attention. Erving Goffman found that such civil inattention is paramount among the techniques that make life in a city, among strangers, possible" ( Bauman and May 2001, p.40) Who is paying attention and who inattention? Police urged to rid Cardiff's streets of homeless in time for Olympics Wales Online 23.7.2012. Summary "The boundaries between 'us' and 'them' provide for the maintenance, via distinctionof identity ." (p.183) "A human relationship is moral when a feeling of responsibility arises within us for the website that helps with scholarship essyas and well-being of the 'other'" (Bauman and May 2001, p.41) "As we have seenphysical proximity may be cleansed of its moral aspect" ( Bauman and May 2001, p.41) We now move from the complexities of maintaining identity in the city to the possible simplicities of maintaining it in a community. We Together: Communities, Consensus and Conflict - Organisations, Order and Disorder. Chapters three and four are easier to understand if you think about the distinction Bauman and May make between modern and traditional societies. The community bonds that unite are stronger in traditional societies, the organisational bonds are more developed as a feature of modern societies. Bauman and May make a distinction between communities (first part of this chapter) and organisations [second parrt]. These are what Weber would have called ideal types and which we could think of as models for analysing reality rather than pictures of specific realities. Bauman and May say " Neither the image of community, nor the model of organisation, adequately describes the practice of human interaction. The two models sketch artificially separated, polar models of action" ( Bauman and May 2001, p.53) Group dancing is a communal form of soidarity. The New York Clearing House is an associative form of soidarity. Weber says that communal solidarity is a subjective feeling individuals have of belonging together. It can be an emotional or a traditional bond. If, however, people relate rmit essay help on a rational calculation of what they can get out of the association (like in Adam Smith)the bond is associative. Bauman and May also make distinctions between different kinds of togetherness. Perhaps website that helps with scholarship essyas should consider their ideas of togetherness as arranged on a spectrum from community at one end to organisation at the other. Some communities may appear natural, especially to people who are born into them. Others are consciously forged or constructed. But, perhaps there are elements of social construction in all types of community? Bauman and May say that: "A collection of people, who are not clearly defined or circumscribed, but who agree to something that other people reject and bestow an authority upon those beliefs, may be referred to as a community " ( Bauman and May 2001, p.43) In this quotation the word may is important. This is what Bauman and May refer to as a "spiritual unity" of people who do do not live in the same area, separate from others with characteristics holding them together (are not clearly defined or circumscribed). [BUT] Bauman and May argue "Situations such as these hardly ever exist. Instead, community is a postulate" [something claimed rather than held], an expression of desire and a call to mobilize and close ranks, rather than a reality" ( Bauman and May 2001, p.44) Organisation ". there are communities that bring people together solely for the aim of pursuing defined tasks. we can speak of purpose groups or organisations." ( Bauman and May 2001, p.46) This way an engineer builds bridges. But this way, also, a social engineer builds organisations. James Wilson's book about Bureaucracies only covers government ones. Weber considered public and private ones. Wilson mostly studies United States Federal agencies: Including the Army, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Federal Communications Commission and the Social Security Administration. That is essay kyle korver powerful assembly. Wilson analyses reasons for inefficiencies in government Bureaucracies. Weber analyses reasons for efficiencies. Would you prefer to fight a modern or a traditional army ? War is as much a matter of organisation as of guns. Bauman and May's analysis of Weber's characteristics of bureaucracy. everyone acts in an official capacity (role) given by rules attached to the role [See a mothers essay division of labour ] to achieve this, a truly rational organisation splits tasks into simple and elementary activities. officials are guided by abstract rules [See Bureaucracy: Management by rules ] people are appointed and promoted by merit in relation to skills for the task [See Officials recruited on grounds of technical competence ] The history of the organisation is made up of its files, not people's memories [See Officials do not own their 'office'] To ensure rational coordination website that helps with scholarship essyas must be arranged in a hierachy [See A Formal hierarchical structure ] " Manuel Castells writes, in the conclusion to the second of his three volume study on Merit pay for teachers essay Information Agethat we are witnessing the growth of networks, markets and organisations that are increasingly governed by 'rational expectation'. Yet if this is a summary of a dominant trend in contemporary western societies, in our survey of the bonds that unite, what is most striking website that helps with scholarship essyas the diversity of human groupings." ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 55) Challenges, choices and constraints. Zygmunt Bauman's argument was stimulated by reading Janina Bauman's account of her life in the Warsaw Ghetto. Bauman and May analyse human actions using a scheme that they derive from Max Weber . Unreflective (or 'Irrational') actions are taken without reflection. We do not pause and reflect before taking such an action: we simply get on with it. Such actions are unreflective, e.g. kissing our children, essay 250 words a friend. They are taken on the basis the basis of habit or emotion. Unreflective: Traditional Action Action based upon custom and habit (e.g. queueing website that helps with scholarship essyas a bus). Unreflective: Affectual Action Action based on feelings of emotion (e.g. kissing a friend) Rational actions are based upon our consciously reflecting on the choices available to achieve a particular objective. We pause and reflect before deciding which particular action to take, e.g. choosing between different modes of transport to find the quickest way to get from A to B. Instrumentally Rational Action (Means-Ends Rationality). Action based on choosing the most efficient means to achieve a given end (e.g. planning a journey). Value Speedypaper prices Action Action taken in pursuit of an overriding objective. Power is the ability to enforce a command or decision in the face of opposition (e.g. by cheap custom essay writing services of physical force, or psychological pressure, as in the use of torture to extract a confession). Authority is a special kind of 'power' - the exercise of power which is consented to, and accepted as legitimate by those over whom it is exercised. Weber analyses three types of authority: Traditional authority is legitimised on the basis of respect for long established traditions (e.g. monarchical power). Charismatic authority is legitimised on the basis of perceived extraordinary powers/qualities of an individual (e.g. Gandhi, Mandela). Rational-Legal authority is legitimised on narrative essay help from unexpected source basis of people's belief in legally defined position and rules of conduct (e.g. High Court judge). ". uk essay competitions idea of an organisation is the attempt to adjust human action to the ideal requirements of rationality. such an attempt must involve. the silencing of moral considerations via every task being reduced to a simple choice of obeying or refusing to obey a command." ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 72) ". the murder of millions of Jews initiated and supervised by a few thousand top Nazi leaders and officials was a gigantic bureaucratic operation that involved the cooperation of millions of 'ordinary' people. They drove the trains which carried the victims to gas chambers and worked in the factories that produced the poisonous gases or crematoria appliances. The final results were so remote from the simple tasks which preoccupied them on a daily basis that the connections could escape their attention or be barred from consciousness." ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 72) Bureaucracy and bureaucratic operations. Bauman and May create order sequence essay "models" or "pure forms" of human behaviour. Weber called such models "ideal types" . Bauman and May and May call their models love (or gifts ) and exchange They say: "Love and exchange are two extremes of a continuous line along which human relations may be plotted" (Bauman, Z. and May, T. 2001 p. 91).