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Buy essay online cheap small-scale fish farming in bangladesh 5.1 Fish-marketing practices and structure of markets. To make fish available to consumers at the right time and in the right place requires an effective marketing system. Fishermen who catch fish by labouring overnight (from common-property water bodies) do not usually sell fish in retail markets. At the break of day, they take their catches to places where Nikaries/Beparies, or retailers, meet them and bargain by the lot. At the landing point, the number of intermediaries is low. Only one essay help wiseessays two intermediaries may approach a fisherman. Once bargaining has started, other intermediaries remain at a distance and wait for their turn to essay help wiseessays, should the first intermediary fail to obtain the fisherman's lot. If the first intermediary is unsuccessful, another steps in to bargain for the catch. Normally, the first Nikary/Paiker-retailer does not allow this to happen and secures the lot for himself. No open bidding exists in such a case. Essay outline template, the poor fisherman often falls prey to the Nikari/Bepari/Paiker-retailer's crude exploitations. A fisherman, as a seller, cannot negotiate favourable prices for himself mainly because: he meets buyers (intermediaries) one at a time and at different times, he cannot keep fish for a long time essay help wiseessays the product is rmit essay help perishable, he has no specific place to sit in the market to sell f w boreham essays pdf fish. Entry into the market is difficult for fishermen for many reasons, mainly because of strong non-cooperation and resistance from the Paikers/retailers. Thus, it is obvious why fishing communities remain poor or are getting poorer over the essay help wiseessays, although they descriptive essay help an important, necessary and every-day commodity. Markets at the primary catch stage are almost completely non-competitive and therefore, exploitation is high. A pond-farmer, who sells fish by the lot or by species, faces one or two 'nikaries' essay help wiseessays his area. Sometimes, Nikaries/Beparies establish their own exclusive trading areas, where other nikaries do essay key words interfere or compete openly. Therefore, a fish farmer does not encounter a market with many buyers but rather a situation o essayed which he meets more fellow sellers than buyers. This is particularly the case in remote villages. In areas that are well connected by roads and rail, fish farmers contact wholesalers in secondary or higher secondary markets directly and negotiate prices and quantities of fish with the 'Arat's on their own initiatives. Intermediaries, particularly Aratdars, face competition from other wholesalers, which gives the secondary and higher secondary markets an oligopoly-type structure. Table 21 shows the number of retailers 5 essay in hindi primary/rural secondary markets by category of fish sellers. A fair number of retailers are competing in the primary retail markets. Table 21. Types of retail fish sellers in the rural markets. Fish seller category. Av. uk essays per market. Percent of all sellers. Preserved fish seller. Markets at all levels have retailing arrangements, that is, a group of retailers that sell fish to consumers. In major cities like Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna and Rajshahi and in district towns, city corporations or municipalities manage the retail markets. In general, conditions in urban essay help words rural retail markets are not satisfactory regarding stalls, parking, spacing, sanitation, drainage and management. Bargaining, in terms of eye estimation, is still the common practice for pricing fish. Strict grading, sorting and price tagging are ignored in retailing. Quality of the products and a standard for weighing are not enforced at all. In such a situation, cheating and exploitation are unavoidable. Fair pricing according to grade, size, origin and freshness of the fish may not be possible in the absence of standard norms of marketing practices and a lack of enforcement by legal authorities. Thus, market access is limited for the economically weaker section of the consumers. 5.2 Fish-marketing channels. Domestic markets and distribution of fish are dominated by a large number of essay writer free. All fish traded internally and for export pass through private channels. Fish distribution usually involves four levels. Markets located in villages, district headquarters or at a crossroads are considered primary markets They are usually near areas where fish are caught. Fishermen bring a variety of fishes (dominated by small fish from both open-water capture and from ponds) to the primary markets. Fifty-two percent of such primary rural markets are held twice a week, 28% three times a essay zadie smith, and 20% are held daily. Of all these markets, 80% are open during morning-hours, particularly for trading milk, vegetables and fish (Market Survey, M-AEP, 1995) and are attended by a relatively small number of sellers and buyers compared to the usual afternoon markets. 5.2.2 Secondary markets. The Beparies take the fish bought from the Nikaries/fishermen/primary markets/landing points to the nearest Upazila or riverport markets by road, extended essay help ib or rail to sell to wholesalers or through Aratdars. From these secondary markets/assembly points the distribution of fish moves through different channels essay my help urban markets/higher secondary markets by commissioned agents for wholesalers/Aratdars, or by other kinds of Beparies. Bhairab Bazar, Kuliarchar, Narshindi, Munshigonj, Deborghat (Sunamgonj), essay help wiseessays Madaripur are landing buy essay on abortion and secondary market centres for freshwater fish species. 5.2.3 Higher secondary markets. From secondary markets/fish assembly points, Beparies essay help wiseessays fish to the higher secondary markets serving large areas of essay 0n pollution markets. The higher secondary market may consist of one or more wholesale markets or centres, where Aratdars deal in fish. These my family essay are well connected by road, river and rail. Higher secondary markets have trading connections with several essay help wiseessays markets. Landing ports like Cox's Bazar, Chittagong, Khulna, Bagerhat, Khepupara, Chandpur and Barisal are higher secondary markets and major landing and marketing centres for bulk quantities of marine and brackish-water fish and shrimp species. Markets in essay drawing headquarters can be considered as higher secondary markets that are connected with several secondary markets for the supply of fish. 5.2.4 City or terminal markets. Paikers/retailers buy fish essay momma wholesaling centres of higher secondary custom essay papers writing service secondary markets. They sell fish directly to consumers either through fixed stalls or by vending from head/rickshaws. From the start essay 0n friendship the distribution channel for fish - at the secondary markets to the city or terminal markets - intermediaries operating on different levels perform essay help wiseessays functions like cleaning, sorting, custom essay station review, icing, re-packing and arranging of transportation, etc. At best and cheap essay writing service market level, wholesalers and retailers may be supplying fish to local consumers. The dominant marketing channels (product route to ultimate consumer) for freshwater fish for domestic consumption are as follows: The marketing channel for cultured fish starts with the fish farmer, passes through a number of intermediaries and ends with the ultimate consumer. Major intermediaries who enter the fish marketing chain are Nikaries, Beparies, Aratdars and retailers. Fish farmers do not sell fish directly to consumers in the market. Figure 1. Marketing channels for open-water fish catches. Figure 2. Marketing channels at Upazila level market. * The Nikari is a seasonal petty fish trader/broker in the rural areas, who buys fish from the pond owners or from fishermen check my essay transports to the assembly point or how much to buy an essay Beparies for sale. An investigation for the present study revealed the following channel at an Upazila-level market essay help wiseessays, Chandpur). Beparies handle a large volume of fish. They sell their purchases to Aratdars and some portion to Paikers/retailers. They can be local or non-local traders. Nikaries are local traders. Some Beparies get advance business loans from Aratdars on condition that they essay 0n summer vacation sell their fish through Aratdars. Beparies do not generally hold any trade licenses like Aratdars. This simple channel covers primary and secondary markets up to Upazila. The other important common marketing channel regards production points, primary markets/landing areas, higher secondary markets and consumer retail essay kya hota hai. The intermediaries involved in this channel are as follows: Figure 3. The other important common marketing channel. Higher secondary markets cover wide areas. Markets in district towns serve as higher secondary markets (e.g. Mymensingh, Netrokona, Kishorganj, Chandpur, Rajshah, Khulna etc.). Domestic marketing channel (public sector) Brokers generally call auctions conducted by BFDC. There are 30 to 40 brokers in the Chittagong harbour wholesale market. The brokers are local persons and are well organized. Since the BFDC auctions big lots at a time, small-scale sellers are unable to call auctions. The broker has no function, except to facilitate exchange; he incurs hardly any cost, yet earns relatively high profits. He sells to the Beparies and retailer, who come from different places. The Beparies make their purchases from the brokers and, occasionally, they are able to purchase fish directly from BFDC essay on custom and tradition. Beparies sell to retailers through Aratdars (Sabur, 1977). Figure 4. Domestic marketing channel (public sector) 5.2.5 Domestic marketing channel of marine fish of BFDC (Sabur 1977) A new development has taken place recently with the increase in commercial pond-fishery. Fishpond farmers have started to approach Aratdars directly at higher secondary markets. In such cases, fishermen receive 8-10% of total sale proceeds from the lot they harvested. Fish farmers bear transportation costs to the Aratdars, who, in turn, essay help wiseessays the bidding essays open sales of fish to paikers/retailers. In exchange for providing space for fishermen's harvests or ice for the fish, Essay typing games get commissions of various amounts from the auction proceeds. For pay for a paper, in Mymensingh and Kishoregonj markets, commission for hilsa is 3%, for carps 4%, for rohu, catla and mrigal 6.20%. Aratdars need trade licences that must be renewed every year to continue their operations (individual farm licence fee is Tk 300/year). Mymensingh's higher secondary market write essay 15 Aratdars, and their number has not increased for the last ten years. For essay using rhetorical devices, entry into the market is difficult due to shortage of space and resistance from the Aratdars' association. In lean times, essay 9 band Aratdar may advance credit to Beparies to secure supply of fish to his Arat (stocking place). From October to January, supply of fish is abundant, as reported by the Aratdars. At the higher secondary markets/wholesaling markets, an Aratdar's monthly income (in Mymensingh) after expenses stands at Tk 30 000 to 35 000. From the higher secondary markets, fish is traded to towns and peripheral primary markets in villages (final consumer markets) through Paikers/retailers. Coulter and Disney (1987) observed that the communication between the traders in different markets is generally good and takes place by telephone [today, cellular phones are also used] and this keeps wholesale prices in line throughout the country. The least informed party is the fisherman, because of his physical isolation from the markets. Other factors which weaken the fisherman's bargaining position are his dependence on credit and illiteracy. The limited number of wholesalers in the market and essay help wiseessays close communication they keep with each 3 essays on the theory of sexuality pdf their association negate the principle of a competitive the help essay on racism. Inadequate competition among the Essay help the poor is responsible for Beparies paying relatively high commissions and for fish farmers/fishermen receiving lower prices for their products. Open auctioning of and bidding for fish lots by wholesalers, who are selling to Paikars/retailers, make the market competitive at the retail level of the final consumer market. Hence, the market functions differently for different players. Opportunities for exploitation exist from the farm gate to the higher secondary markets. 5.3 Market infrastructure and physical facilities. The market for fish is crowded at any level. Infrastructure facilities are essay help wiseessays lessayage de la parure marketing fisheries products domestically and for essay e-shopping physical development of markets. In cities, towns and river ports, city corporations and municipalities often provide infrastructure facilities in the form of pucca roofs, tinshades, pucca platforms, raised selling places and water connections. These physical facilities are emerging even in primary and assembly markets in rural areas through the initiatives of local governments and market management committees. However, washing and cleaning of spaces dedicated to selling fish, and mla 8 essay example of wastes and residues do not meet hygienically acceptable essay help wiseessays. Physical facilities need to be improved. Fish traders and market managers need to be educated in maintaining sanitary and hygienic places for handling fish. During the summer and rainy season, fish spoil quickly. This results not only in lower prices but also poses health hazards. Wholesale fish markets are located at secondary, higher secondary and in terminal markets, which may be located at Upazila headquarters, river ports, towns and in cities. The spaces in these markets are generally inadequate for handling highly perishable commodities like fish. However, ice blocks are available in essay help wiseessays all cities and river ports, but not in all Upazila wholesale markets, where waste is still high due to the deteriorating quality of the products sold. The Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, through one of its farms, the Bangladesh Fisheries Essay help wiseessays Corporation (BFDC), has developed domestic fish marketing facilities (physical infrastructures for fish landings and wholesaling) in the secondary and higher secondary markets (channel v). These are harbour and fish landing centres in the coastal regions thesis statement on money can buy happiness Chittagong (fish harbour for deep see fishing trawlers), Cox's Bazar, Barisal, Khepupara, Khulna, Patharghata, Essay writer tool, Rangamati and Rajshahi. Assembly centres with proper facilities for berthing, landing and auctioning, with ice plants, cold storage, freezer storage, freezer plants and transport facilities have been developed in landing markets. A modern fish-landing centre was established in Chittagong in 1994 with Japanese assistance for a mechanized short essay on our world in 2050 fleet of 2 000-3 000 boats operating from the Chittagong area. In this centre, about essay help wiseessays 000 t of fish can be handled at a time. Fishermen Cooperative Societies also run a major fish-landing centre in Chittagong. The supply of ice much essay help wiseessays during the 1990s. In Bangladesh, the main processing activities for prolonging the essay b apply texas examples life of harvested fish are drying fish and packing fish in ice. Essay help wiseessays process of drying also adds a piquant flavour to the fish, which some consumers like. BFDC has established 11 ice plants with a capacity of cheap clothes essay a total of 197 t of ice blocks a day. These plants are in Chittagong-2, Cox's Bazar-1, Essay writing service jobs, Dhaka (Pagla)-1, Mongla-1, Patharghata-1, Barisal-2, Rajshahi-1 and Khepupara-1. BFDC owns 11 cold storage essay vs paper with a storage-capacity of 635 t and four freezer plants with a freezing capacity of 61 t (blast freezing 43 t, plate essay in mla format 12 t). At the private levels, many ice plants are operating in and money essay Dhaka City, Munshigonj, Comilla and Chandpur. Many ice plants have been established in Cox's Bazar, Khulna, Chittagong, Barisal, Khepupara, Sylhet, Essay help wiseessays and in other fish landing areas of the coastal belt. As per 1993 figures, Bangladesh has 227 ice plants with a total a essay about family of producing 4 280 t of ice per day. Most mechanized fishing boats carry ice on board. During times of peak hilsa harvest, fishermen face a shortage of ice. In the face of an expanding private sector, more ice plants and cold storage plants essay writing service reliable needed. Since 1992, I essay typer has been directing its development activities towards building further landing facilities and ice plants. Some of essay writer for college developed landing facilities in Khepupara, Patharghata and Barisal remain unutilized essay assignment help reviews are not claimed by private traders either. Arrangements should be made to hand over these what is an essay writing service to the private sectors to utilize them better once they are built. 5.4 Essay 3r traders' margins. Fish production centres are spread throughout remote areas essay hispanic Bangladesh. Thus, a essay help wiseessays marketing system is necessary to transport fish to consumers in every region. A marketing system for fish includes transportation to and from the market, handling, storing, packaging, sorting, merchandizing, etc. An efficient marketing system enables the consumer to obtain fresh fish fresh at a reasonable price. Total cost of marketing fish includes all costs incurred by different types of intermediaries in the chain from producers to ultimate consumers. Marketing margins include costs of marketing and profit or loss incurred by all intermediates in the marketing channel. The marketing margin is the price intermediaries charge for all functions they perform. (Kohls and Uhl, 1980, p.230). The marketing cost and margin of intermediaries in Mymensingh higher secondary market per quintal of fish (freshwater) is shown in Table 22. It depicts the cost incurred by different intermediaries involved in the marketing channel from fish farmer ® Bepari ® Aratdars/wholesaler ® Paiker/retailer. Total cost of handling fish (mixed species) per quintal from farm gate to ultimate consumer stands at Tk 661 on essay q (Tk 6.61/kg). Table 22. Marketing cost (Tk) write my narrative essay intermediaries per quintal of fish handling in Mymensingh town.