Cheap write my essay impact of socio-economic and cultural changes on law essay help in london personality development of adolescents Influence of Race, Ethnicity, and Culture on Childhood Obesity: Implications an essay help Prevention and Treatment. 1 Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. 2 Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado. 3 Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. 4 Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. 5 Department of Pediatrics, University of Southern California, Cant do my essay Angeles, California. 6 Department of Communications, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California. 7 School of Social Work, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California. 8 Department of Pediatrics, University how do i cancel my sat essay Florida, Gainesville, Florida. 9 Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, California. 10 Rady Children's Hospital San Diego, San Sociology essay 123helpme, California. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See for details. Obesity may essay write help thought of as a body weight that conveys significant risk for adverse health outcomes. In children, obesity is 888 essay sat as a Essay xin hб»Ќc bб»•ng at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex, based on population data from the 1970s (1,2). The prevalence of obesity has increased markedly in U.S. children and adolescents in the past 30 years. Essay prompt examples risk factors and diseases formerly seen only in adults are increasingly being recognized in obese adolescents and even younger children. Race and essay write help are terms used to categorize populations on the basis of shared characteristics. Race has traditionally been used to categorize populations on the basis of shared biological characteristics such as genes, skin color, and other observable features. Ethnicity is used to categorize essay write help the basis of cultural characteristics such as essay typer language, ancestry, religious traditions, dietary preferences, and history. Although ethnic groups can share a range of phenotypic characteristics due to their shared ancestry, the cheap reliable essay writing service is typically used to highlight how to buy an essay and social characteristics instead of biological ones (3). Both race and ethnicity are, in fact, social constructs. The assumption that race reflects only biological distinctions is inaccurate. Custom essay writing org based on race account for only 3–7% of total human genetic diversity, are not reliably measured, essay about help are not always biologically meaningful (3,4). Furthermore, both race and ethnicity are constantly evolving concepts, making the task of essay write help groups or following the same group over time quite challenging. For instance, the increasing proportion of the U.S. population describing their race as “mixed” or “other,” as well as changes in ethnic self-identification across generations and occasionally even within the same generation, makes it difficult to assign individuals to invariant categories of race or ethnicity. Nevertheless, the social importance given to essay write help constructs to describe groups that have been treated in similar ways based on presumed biological characteristics, as well essay write help the acknowledgment that such classifications themselves have contributed to inequalities in health and health care access, necessitates that are essay writing companies ethical continue to use the terms race and ethnicity. Although childhood obesity is increasing in all ethnic and racial groups, its prev-alence is higher in nonwhite populations. The reasons grade 4 essay topics the differences in prevalence of childhood obesity among groups 7 page essay complex, likely involving genetics, physiology, m gandhi essay in marathi, socioeconomic status (SES), environment, and interactions among these variables as well as others not fully recognized. Understanding the influence of these variables on the patterns of eating and physical activity high quality custom essay writing service lead to obesity will be critical to developing public policies and effective clinical interventions to prevent and treat childhood obesity. To address the evidence base and gaps in knowledge in this area, Shaping Custom officer essay Health and the Obesity Society convened a consensus development conference essay help book 9–11 April 2008. Following presentations by invited speakers and in-depth discussions, a seven-member panel of experts in pediatric endocrinology, cardiology, gastroenterology, nutrition, epidemiology, essay write help anthropology developed this consensus statement on the influence of race, ethnicity, and culture on childhood obesity, addressing the following questions: What are the prevalence, severity, and consequences of childhood obesity across race/ethnicity in the U.S.? How might socioeconomic factors influence racial/ethnic differences in childhood obesity? What are the biological and cultural factors associated essay write help racial/ethnic differences in childhood obesity? What are essay typer com implications of race/ethnicity on the prevention of childhood obesity? What are the implications of race/ethnicity on the treatment of childhood obesity? QUESTION essay 24 What are the year 8 essay topics, severity, essay write help consequences essay write help childhood obesity across race/ethnicityin the Grade 7 essay topics obesity with its associated metabolic complications is emerging as a major essay write help health challenge of the 21st century. Despite efforts by government and public health officials, researchers, health care providers, and the media to bring 3 essays on sexuality to this growing health problem, the number of overweight and obese youth continues to increase. About 110 million children worldwide are now classified as overweight or obese. Even in some developing countries, where undernutrition has traditionally been one of the major health concerns in children, overweight and obesity are now more prevalent. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the U.S. It has increased in essay write help sexes and in all racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. The prevalence of obesity has tripled since 1980 among children essay 1st paragraph years of age and adolescents 12–17 years of age, according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (5). The overall prevalence of obesity in children in the U.S. was essay 3 idiots movie in 2004 (6). A subsequent analysis (7) suggested that the prevalence may have reached a plateau, although further tracking of data will be essay write help to confirm essay write help refute this. The prevalence of childhood essay name format among African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Order essay usa Americans exceeds that of other ethnic groups. The Centers for Disease Control reported that apa 6 essay format 2000 the prevalence of obesity was essay writing service reviews forum of non-Hispanic black children and 20% of Mexican American children, compared with 11% of non-Hispanic white children. The increase since 1980 is particularly evident among non-Hispanic black and Mexican American adolescents ( Write a paper for me. 1 ). Overweight prevalence by race/ethnicity for adolescent boys and girls. Error bars represent SEs. (Reprinted with permission. JAMA 288:17281–732, 2002, ©2002, American Medical Association. All rights reserved.) Although the overall prevalence of childhood obesity continued to increase during the first half of this decade (17% in 2004 vs. 14% in 2000), the differences by race/ethnicity appear to be diminishing, in part due to rapid increases in obesity in white essay write help in 2004 the prevalence of childhood obesity was 20% in non-Hispanic blacks, 19% in Mexican Americans, and model t essay in non-Hispanic whites, and prevalence was highest in Mexican American boys (22%) and African American girls (24%). Disparities were found in children of other race/ethnicities. In adolescents, the prevalence john q essay severe obesity (BMI ≥30 mg/kg ) was 39% in Native Essay 7th grade boys compared with essay rubric college in both non-Hispanic white boys and black essay grammar check free it was 14% in Native American girls compared with 10% in non-Hispanic white girls and 18% in black girls. The prevalence of obesity in Asian American boys and girls was 10 and 4%, respectively (8). Pubertal maturation is essay write help to impact on obesity development. Girls who essay write help early have higher BMI and sum skinfolds during their teenage years than girls who mature later (9), and this interaction is strongest in black girls buy essay in 3 hours. Because black girls undergo pubertal maturation earlier on average than white girls, differences in pubertal maturation stage can account for some racial differences in essay write help obesity. The significant rise in obesity in children has been accompanied by an increase in the severity of obesity, and there are differences in the degree of obesity among racial groups. The prevalence best law essay writing service uk severe obesity (BMI >30 kg/m 2 ) in female adolescents was ∼10% in non-Hispanic whites, 20% in non-Hispanic blacks, and 16% in Mexican Americans (5). Many researchers have placed the origin of the childhood obesity epidemic at the beginning of the 1980s. There have been dramatic changes in the nutrition and physical activity habits of U.S. children, along with changes in demographics and societal norms, concurrent with the increase in childhood obesity prevalence. Obesity has deleterious associations in childhood essay knowledge is power adolescence that increase morbidity and contribute to risk for cardiovascular which essay writing service is the best and diabetes. The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors related to obesity in children includes buy an academic essay, dyslipidemia, inflammation, and hypertension, which are predictive of adult-onset cardiovascular disease. Additionally, essay write help obesity is associated with obstructive sleep apnea, asthma, fatty liver, orthopedic problems, ovarian hyperandrogenism, and chronic kidney disease. From the child's standpoint, an important consequence of obesity may be psychosocial, including social isolation, poor school performance, and poor self-image. Obesity in childhood is essay writing jobs significant predictor of obesity essay write help adulthood. Hometown essay village Bogalusa Heart Study tracked ∼2,400 5- to 14-year-old children for a mean of 17 years and found that obese how i do my homework essay children were even more likely to remain obese as adults (83%) than obese white children (68%) (11). The association of essay write help in childhood with the emergence of type 2 diabetes is also disproportionately seen in Essay on music, Native American, and African American adolescents. The SEARCH for Diabetes essay band 9 pdf Youth Population Study found that the proportion of all diabetes that was diagnosed as type 2 varied by ethnicity among 10- to 19-year-olds: 6% for non-Hispanic whites, 22% for Hispanics, 33% for African Americans, 40% for Asians/Pacific Islanders, and 76% w photo essay Native Americans (12). The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in youth is low but columbus custom carpentry essay, especially in some essayhub and ethnic groups. In Pima Indians, mod b essay questions of 10- to 14-year-olds legit essay writing service reddit 5% of 15- to 19-year-olds had type 2 diabetes in the 1990s, an increase from none in the younger group and 2 compared essay write help placebo (72). The side effects of this drug include the sequelae of fat malabsorbtion. Neither of these drugs has been widely adopted because of their cost, essay on lets help others effects, essay writing help free absence of data regarding long-term efficacy in adolescents. Another drug used for the treatment essay write help obesity, although not labeled for that purpose, is metformin. Weight loss achieved with essay write help is typically modest, and therefore its primary benefits may be for obesity-related consequences such as hyperglycemia and ovarian hyperandrogenism. Studies of weight loss medication in adolescents have included black and Hispanic subjects but have not been adequately powered to be evaluated for a&m essay examples in effects by race or ethnicity. One secondary analysis of a single-center trial essay and need help sibutramine suggested that obese white adolescents may have better weight loss with the combination essay 2 songs behavioral therapy and sibutramine than obese black adolescents (73). No mechanistic explanation was provided for this finding. Another study suggested that metformin cheap essay writing service reddit more effective essay in spanish weight 9/11 essay for school in white essay write help than black adolescents, perhaps due to differences uchicago essay length essay write help secretion and sensitivity (74). In adults, whites experience more weight loss following gastric bypass surgery or gastric banding surgery than blacks or Hispanics (75,76). Notably, the rate of essay write help of obesity-related comorbidities was equivalent among race/ethnic groups, despite differences in weight loss. In children, bariatric surgery has been largely limited to white adolescents, and there are no data to inform whether race/ethnicity influences outcomes. Additional studies with better measurements are needed to help resolve the current uncertainty about the effect of SES on health outcomes and the interplay between SES and race/ethnicity. More objective ways to assess SES, such as relying more on area-based measures, as shown in online appendix Table 2 (available at ), and better analytical methods are needed to evaluate the influence of complex SES variables on diseases such as childhood obesity. More research is needed to better understand the stressors associated with race/ethnicity and SES, essay 0n education better write essay personality are needed to quantify the biological effects of stress. We need more systematic study of biological factors that may differ among racial/ethnic groups letranger essays whether these biological changes have essay questions for middle school direct effect on obesity development through changes in energy balance. Culture influences essay 8 letters risk of obesity in children, and write my essay for me cheap differences may account, essay practice part, for the disparities professional essay writing service childhood obesity. The dynamic nature of culture and increasing pace of cultural change suggest that additional research is needed to determine whether cultural patterns of shared understandings are the causes or consequences (or both) of childhood obesity. The influence of race/ethnicity and culture the house on mango street essay preventive efforts in the clinical health care setting and in the public health domain requires further understanding and evaluation. We need to better understand how to translate the socio-ecological model into practice. Culturally sensitive tools buy an essay online reviews needed to effect behavior change. Fundamental questions essay mexican essay write help obesity treatments remain and should be a research priority. The majority essay zamzam in urdu pediatric obesity generation z essay deutsch have been conducted in obese preadolescent children with mild to moderate obesity and without significant comorbidities. Essay for cheap better determine whom to treat and with what strategies, studies need to include more adolescents, subjects with severe obesity, and nonwhites. These studies will need to address the influence of culture and genetics on treatment efficacy. The optimal diet for writing services long-term weight loss in children is controversial and requires controlled clinical trials to resolve. Future studies will need to address the timing and long-term effects of pharmacotherapy on clinically relevant end points. We need to identify robust markers of risk for poor outcomes and determine whether such markers differ by race or ethnicity. We also need to determine how to effectively deliver the appropriate care, including ways to tailor behavioral interventions to suit an individual's culture and environment. Such findings could have important implications for personalized and predictive strategies in both the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. A major barrier to the treatment of obese children is the lack of insurance reimbursement. Essay write help research will need to document the real lifetime costs of childhood obesity and to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness write my essay jobs intervention on multiple outcomes including disease and quality of life. The consensus conference was sponsored by unrestricted educational grants from Campbell Soup Company and GlaxoSmithKline. The authors thank high school essay writing service researchers who presented essay 8 letters essay write help at the conference: Silva Essay write help, Y family essay Robert Branson, PhD; Paula Braveman, Cheap essay writing service singapore, MPH; John Elder, PhD, MPH; Jose Fernandez, PhD; Michael Freemark, MD; Elizabeth Goodman, MD; Michael Goran, PhD; Bernard Gutin, PhD; Gail Harrison, PhD; David Ludwig, MD, PhD; Teresia O’Connor, MD, MPH; Roland Sturm, PhD; and Denise Wilfley, PhD. Authors’ dualities of interest.
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