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Research Paper On Childhood Sexual Abuse Sexual assault of children Introduction Sexual assault refers to sexual behavior forced by one person unto another against their will, or use of threats, coercion, or touching of a sexual nature that may involve the essay typer for free or the breasts. It ranges from forced penetration that can be vaginal, anal, or oral, touching even through clothes, sexual torture, forced kissing, or sexual abuse of children (Alters & Schiff, 2011). There are several types of essay typer for free assault. Rape refers to forced sexual intercourse with a person who legally is not able to give consent. It can involve both men and women although the majority of those essay typer for free are women. It can be an attempted rape or a completed one with most perpetrated by people known to the victim. Other men usually more likely rape men. Marital rape refers to use of force against one's partner, date rape occurs in those who are in essay typer for free relationships, acquaintance rape occurs with people who know each other but are not yet married. Child sexual abuse involves exposure of the child's genitals indecently, production of pornography using children, sexual intercourse with a child, touching or viewing the child's genitals. Most perpetrators are family members, making it a form of incest. Sexual assault of elderly involves people over the age of sixty years who are frail and weak and have great reliance on caretakers. Sexual harassment refers to coercive sexual behavior or asking for sexual favors with a promise of rewards. It includes exposure of one's genitals, tbear essay calls with use essay typer for free obscene language, jokes of a sexual nature, pressing against people for sexual stimulation. Groping refers to touching other people in a sexual way without their consent. Other forms of sexual assault include domestic violence, forced sodomy, forced object penetration, incest. Sexual assault is a major problem in America and Canada. In 1999, rape rate was 32.7 per 100,000 people in America. The National Crime Victimization Survey reported 201,000 rape cases in essay typer for free (Hodgson & Kelley, 2002) Child sexual abuse Children are a vulnerable group, and most perpetrators are relatives of the child that can be a father, brother, uncle, or cousin. Others can be neighbors, family friends, babysitters, while a small numbers are strangers. Many cases of child sexual assault go unreported because children may be too young to explain what happened or to recognize the offenders. The offender may also threaten the child against informing anyone, give the child gifts in order to keep quiet, and may fear punishment from the perpetrator if they tell anyone, may fear others will not believe them, or may believe it is a type of punishment. Therefore, understanding disclosure to sexual abuse by children is very important in order to protect the victims. Obtaining complete information and disclosure from children essay typer for free central to obtaining justice and avoids false information. Children are very susceptible to influence by adults and this makes them very vulnerable to essay typer for free false reports, with some easily influenced not to disclose any information (Schetky & Green, 1988). The National Institute essay typer for free Child Health Development conducted several investigations between 1998 and 2002 in Israel of children aged 3 to 14 years who were victims of sexual and physical abuse to determine the factors associated with disclosure and nondisclosure. Two thirds of children interviewed gave allegation abuse while the rest failed to disclose. Gender and age of the child has influence on disclosure, 36.9% of those who disclosed sexual abuse were boys while 32.9% were girls. Younger children are less likely essay typer for free make disclosure gkt essay help older children are. Child’s intellectual level of function influence exposure whereby above average children are more likely to disclose than the average or below average children. Last-born children are more likely to make allegations (43.8%) than the first-born (36%). Children with larger families are more likely to disclose as opposed to children without siblings. Nondisclosure rate was 25% for those with both parents and 33% in those without both parents. Children displaced from home when the offence occurred and were not living with both parents have higher rates of non-disclosure (35.6%) than those children who were living at home with both parents (28.2%). The non-disclosure is high when the offender is a parent or a parent figure, with boys less likely to disclose (Pipe, Lamb, Orbach, & Cederborg, essay typer for free. The disclosure rates in this study were high and were consistent with another by Pipe and colleagues in 2003 that reported a disclosure rate of 81% of those interviewed. The statics from essay typer for free study are thus reliable (Pipe, Lamb, Orbach, & Cederborg, 2007). Boys make up a third of all cases of child sexual abuse, but are less likely to disclose. Around 90% of the offenders are male and peak vulnerability is seven to thirteen years of age. Younger children are involved in 20% of cases. The most serious form of abuse is intra familial because it occurs over a long period, with 50% of cases involving girls and 15% boys. It mostly involves fathers, uncles, or brothers and this creates loyalty conflicts. A third of sexual abuse is by youth under 18 years (Jones & Ramchandani, 1999). Mary, a 15-year-old girl from Wisconsin found walking in the streets barefoot. This was after she had escaped from hands of her father, stepbrother, and stepmother where she had suffered for many years mental, essay typer for free, and physical abuse. She had lived in their home’s basement for five years from where she had ran away from before but was found and taken back. She could not have any essay 8 parts speech, did not go church module b essay speeches school. She reported that it started when she turned ten years. Her family would beat her, and her stepbrother forced her to do oral sex on him. The family then started keeping her in the basement. They forced her to do house chores while naked and the stepbrother would touch her genital area and rub her stomach and breasts. She c diff essay so scared of him and never said a word. She would go without meals most of the time. She fled from her home several times but her parents would find her threatened to report her as a run away to the police. One day her stepmother threatened to throw her down the stairs and that is when she decided to report it. She run away, started wandering in the streets until a motorist saw her, and called the police. She had lengthy stay in hospital because she was malnourished after which she was placed in foster care. The court charged her father and stepmother with child abuse and endangerment that carries sentence of 11 years. The stepbrother was 18 years and was charged with child sexual abuse and convicted of 68 years in prison (Corby, 1988). The method used to intervene depends on the nature of abuse, resources available, child's age, and family reactions. It should be a essay typer for free approach among medical officer, mental health specialists, social workers and the police. The police are involved in order to bring the offenders to justice and discourage any potential offender. Mental health specialists are involved because there is a lot of psychological trauma and the children are prone essay typer for free developing posttraumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem and other mental illnesses like personality disorders. Minimize buy essay online australia negative effects of disclosure. After disclosure, there is a lot of disruption of the life of the child including many hearings and interviews and varied reactions from people like outrage, denial, and confrontations. The child should be respected and their needs and autonomy taken into consideration. Essay typer for free interventions minimum and aim to get only the necessary information. Keep the child informed and given options and the court process made short so that the child can start the recovery process. Ensure maximum family support and maintain a good bond with the non-abusive members of the family. Encourage them to support the child and offer counseling cheap essay to buy help them deal with the situation. Increase the level of community professional awareness about sexual abuse, how to diagnose and intervene. Educate the clergy, lawyers, teachers, lawyers through workshops essay 300 words example professional publications. There is need for more specialized professionals like doctors and police officers trained on issues affecting children. Introduction of programs in schools like sexual abuse prevention education informs children on how to avoid and recognize sexual abuse and the importance of reporting such essay typer for free to adults. (Bagley cheap essay writing canada King, 1990). Start offender management initiatives like informing the community about their presence, register any sexual offender, imprisonment for long periods, background check before employing someone to deal with children, have controls on where offenders can live, allocate more resources to catch any unidentified offenders. Criminal justice system considered tertiary measures because of their used after the crime done but captivates the public. However, some believe they can have primary prevention effects, as the punishment will deter those who may intend to perform the consolidate my essay. (Bagley & King, 1990). Both restorative and punitive measures are effective, but there is great disruption of the child’s life with punitive measures and relieving the experience during the court process can have negative impact on the child. The criminal justice system should separate the children from their abusers. Those who abuse the child essay editing jobs undergo criminal trial and should not be allow contact with the child. The court should request for medical evidence essay typer for free assault, victims compensated for cost incurred and court process made fast to allow victims have time to heal. Advocates should be with the victims in hospitals, provide counseling, and provide victims with specific information needed on sexual assault (Bagley & King, 1990). The victims usually need assistance because they suffer from anger that they use as a defensive mechanism for the violation of trust and safety. Accept the children, give them love and support to facilitate recovery. In addition, extra familial support, high self-esteem, and spirituality help in the recovery process. Victims should be encouraged to relinquish guilt essay to help others have about the abuser, attend conferences and workshops about sexual abuse, and undergo psychotherapy. Start self-help groups for adult victims of childhood sexual abuse. Listen without judgment to adult survivors, and do not force them to talk about it (Alters & Schiff, 2011). Victim blaming refers to holding the victim of a crime partially or entirely responsible for what was committed against them. It is important to understand first why people do it to be able to reduce it. One reason is that they want to distance themselves from the occurrence and thus appear them as not vulnerable. It is good to educate people that such can occur to anyone and that the abuser is to blame. We should always challenge victim-blaming attitudes whenever we hear them and should not agree with the excuses from the abusers on why they carried out the act. We should let survivors know that it is not their fault and always hold the abusers accountable for their actions. They should not get top 5 essay writing service with excuses like drugs or alcohol. We should provide survivors with resources and acknowledge that they are their own best experts. Hold campaigns essay topics for middle school the media to avoid victim blaming (Moriarty, 2003). In conclusion, sexual abuse is a serious crime committed against children. It leaves the child psychologically disturbed and this can last for a lifetime. There is need for an effective criminal justice system to fight the crime and a good support system to facilitate recovery of the children. Alters, S., & Schiff, W. (2011). Essential Concepts for Healthy Living Update. London: Jones and Baurnett Publishers. Bagley, C., & King, K. (1990). Child Sexual Abuse: Best websites to pay for essays Search for Healing. London: New Fetter Lane Press. Corby, B. (1988). Managing Child Sexual Abuse Cases. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Hodgson, J. F., & Kelley, D. S. (2002). SexualPractices, and Challenges in the United States and Canada. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group. Jones, D. P., & Ramchandani, P. (1999). Child Sexual Abuse: Informing Practice from Research. Oxon: Radcliffe Medical Press. Moriarty, L. J. (2003). Controversies in Victimology. Essay edge Jersey: Matthew Bender & Company. Pipe, M.-E., Lamb, M. E., Orbach, Y., & Cederborg, A.-C. (2007). Child SexualDelay, and Denial. New York: Taylor & Francis Group. Schetky, D. H., & Green, A. H. (1988). Child Sexual Essay typer for free A Handbook for Health Care and Legal Professions. New York: Brunner Mazel Press.